Type Name(Output, Onput)


NOT: '

not gate
not gate

not n1(f, x);

AND: *

and gate
and gate

// multi input allowed
and d1(f, x, y);

zero times everything is also zero, which obey the characteristic of or operation

OR: +

or gate
or gate

// multi input allowed
or d2(f, x, y);

single one value cause the output become one


xor gate
xor gate

True only when input is not same

// multi input allowed
xor d3(f, x, y);

also have the property of being the toggle, i.e.

0 and 1 there is control, and x is data

$$ x \oplus 0 = x $$

$$ x \oplus 1 = x' $$


$$ f(x,y)=(x+y)y' $$


wire x, y, o1, o2, f;
or o1(o1, x, y);
not n1(o2, y);
and a1(f, o1, o2);

Test of Verilog

module sc_test;
    reg a, b; // input
    wire s, c // output
    sc_block sc1(s, c, a, b) // build circuit under test
    initial begin
        $dumpfile("sc.vcd"); // output file config
        $dumpvars(0, sc_test) // test what module and how to test?
        a = 0; b = 0; #10; // test signal for 10 sec
        a = 0; b = 1; #10;
        a = 1; b = 0; #10;
        $finish; // end simulation
        $monitor("At time %2t, a = %d b = %d s = %d c = %d", $time, a, b, s, c); // format the string and record
endmodule // end test


Bitwise Operation

do operation to every bit

unsigned char a = 0xac; // bit value
unsigned char b = ~a; // apply not gate to every bit

Logical Operation

  • have higher priority than bitwise operation

True: if bits have 1

False: all bits are 0

Base transfer

Base 2 to 10: each position times weight, i.e. $2^x$

Base 10 to 2: divided by 2 till answer is 0, list remainder of each steps and write them down inversely.

Base 2 to 16: divided them into groups (four item per groups), then, convert each block into base 16

base transfer
base transfer

Binary addition

binary addition
binary addition

Modular Addition: Not like normal addition or subtraction, binary addition/subtraction cannot carry last character.

A +B in N-bit representation is equal to:

$$ (A + B)mod 2^N $$


If expectation not equal to reality, overflow happens

$$ A + B \not = (A+ B )mod 2^n $$

2's Complement Representation

Use base 2 to represent the sign

Compare with the normal representation, it can do calculation right even when discard the last character

sign represent
sign represent

Change sign

  1. origin: 0 0 1 1
  2. flip bit: 1 1 0 0
  3. add one: 1 1 0 1


for example, 4-bits 2's Comp representation range from -8 to 7

  • We can simply check if overflow by checking the result sign

overflow circle
overflow circle

overflow example
overflow example

Bit shift

define in programming by declare unsign

left shift: append to the left, and discard the right most bit, sign/unsigned behave identically

right shift:

  • unsigned: append all zero on the right
  • signed: append bit according to the foremost bit (negative/positive)